Appeal by respondent from judgment entered 7 March 1997 by Judge William Z. Wood, Jr. in Stanly County Superior Court. Heard in the Court of Appeals 13 January 1988.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Wynn, Judge.
The issue before us is whether constitutional or common law principles prevent the North Carolina Board of Dental Examiners from sanctioning a dentist who hired a dentist unlicensed in North Carolina to practice in his office, where the Board made no findings as to the hiring dentist's culpable mental state. We hold that the Board may impose sanctions in such a case.
On 29 July 1995, the North Carolina Board of Dental Examiners conducted a hearing to determine whether Thomas W. Armstrong, a dentist licensed to practice in North Carolina, violated N.C. Gen. Stat. § 90- 41(a)(13), which prohibits a dentist from employing a dentist unlicensed in North Carolina. After the hearing, the Dental Board issued its Final Agency Decision, finding that:
1. Respondent [Dr. Armstrong] is licensed to practice dentistry in North Carolina and is the holder of License Number 4310, originally issued by the Board on August 1, 1977 and duly renewed through the current year.
2. At all relevant times, Respondent was engaged in the practice of general dentistry in Charlotte, North Carolina.
3. During September of 1994, Respondent employed Barry Conger, D.D.S. to practice dentistry as an associate dentist in Respondent's practice.
4. Between September 12, 1994 and October 17, 1994, Respondent allowed Dr. Conger to practice dentistry as an employee in Respondent's practice.
5. Dr. Conger was not licensed to practice dentistry in North Carolina during September and October of 1994 and has never held a license to practice dentistry in North Carolina.
Based on its Conclusion that findings of fact three and four constituted a violation of N.C. Gen. Stat. § 90-41(a)(13), the Dental Board suspended Dr. Armstrong's license for five years. The suspension involved actual surrender of his license to practice for fourteen days, and a probationary period for the remaining four years and fifty weeks during which he could practice. The conditional return of his license required Dr. Armstrong to perform 160 hours of community service and that he take and pass a jurisprudence exam.
Dr. Armstrong appealed for review to the Stanly County Superior Court. The Superior Court reversed the Dental Board, concluding that "the substantial rights of [Dr. Armstrong] were prejudiced because (1) the action of the Dental Board was erroneous as a matter of law for failure to require that mens rea of [Dr. Armstrong] be shown; and (2) that the action of the Dental Board violated the Law of the Land Clause of the North Carolina Constitution, Article I, § 19, and the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and was arbitrary and capricious, because the punishment imposed on [Dr. Armstrong] was not rationally related to the statutory purpose of protecting the public from incompetent dentists." The Dental Board appealed to this Court.
Preliminary Discussion of the Law
Article 2 of Chapter 90 of North Carolina's General Statutes sets forth regulations concerning the practice of dentistry in North Carolina and provisions governing the activities of the Dental Board. In promulgating article 2, the general assembly specifically declared the importance of the legislation for the people of North Carolina. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 90-22(a) (1997) states that the "practice of dentistry in the State of North Carolina is hereby declared to affect the public health, safety and welfare and to be subject to regulation and control in the public interest."
The task of protecting the public and promoting the public interest in the competent practice of dentistry has been entrusted by the legislature to the Dental Board. See N.C. Gen. Stat. § 90-22(b) (1997) (stating that the Dental Board is "the agency of the State for the regulation of the practice of dentistry in this State."). This legislative intent to entrust the Dental Board with the oversight and regulation of the practice of dentistry is evident throughout the article. In particular, N.C. Gen. Stat. § 90-29(a) (1997) provides that "[n]o person shall engage in the practice of dentistry in this State, or offer or attempt to do so, unless such person is the holder of a valid license or certificate of renewal of license duly issued by the North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners."
In carrying out its public function, N.C. Gen. Stat. § 90-41 (1997) authorizes the Dental Board to take disciplinary action against licensed dentists for various actions and omissions. Specifically relevant to this case is N.C. Gen. Stat. § 90-41(a)(13)(1997), which authorizes the Board to sanction a dentist who "[h]as employed a person not licensed in this State to do or perform any act or service, or has aided, abetted or assisted any such unlicensed person to do or perform any act or service which under this Article or under Article 16 of this Chapter, can lawfully be done or performed only by a dentist or a dental hygienist licensed in this State." Under the statute, the Board may impose sanctions if it "is satisfied" that such employment or assistance has occurred. Upon such a finding, it may, among other sanctions, "[r]evoke or suspend a license to practice dentistry" and "[i]nvoke such other disciplinary measures, censure, or probative terms against a licensee as it deems fit and proper." N.C. Gen. Stat. § 90-41(a)(1997).
When reviewing a final agency decision of the Board, the Superior Court sits as an appellate court. Little v. Board of Dental Examiners, 64 N.C. App. 67, 69, 306 S.E.2d 534, 536 (1983). This Court and the superior court employ the same standard of review. Dorsey v. UNC- Wilmington, 122 N.C. App. 58, ...