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Jenkins v. United States

United States District Court, E.D. North Carolina, Southern Division

October 11, 2017

DAVID LEE JENKINS, JR., Petitioner,
v.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Respondent.

          ORDER

          JAMES C. DEVER III Chief United States District Judge.

         On December 28, 2015, David Lee Jenkins, Jr., ("Jenkins") moved under 28 U.S.C. § 2255 to vacate, set aside, or correct his 168-month sentence based on the alleged miscalculation of his advisory guideline range under Johnson v. United States. 135 S.Ct. 2551 (2015). See [D.E. 56] 4, 11-13; [D.E. 56-2]. This court held the motion in abeyance pending the Supreme Court's decision in Beckles v. United States. 137 S.Ct. 886 (2017). On August 23, 2017, in light ofBeckles. the government moved to dismiss Jenkins's motion for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted [D.E. 67]. As explained below, the court grants the government's motion to dismiss and dismisses Jenkins's section 2255 motion.

         I.

         On August 10, 2012, pursuant to a written plea agreement, Jenkins pleaded guilty to possession with intent to distribute a quantity of cocaine (count one) and possession of a firearm in furtherance of a drug-trafficking crime (count two). See [D.E. 35, 63]. On December 5, 2012, at Jenkins's sentencing hearing, the court found that Jenkins was a career offender, [D.E. 39] ¶ 27, and calculated Jenkins's advisory guideline range to be 262 to 327 months' imprisonment based on a total offense level of 29 and criminal history category of VI. See [D.E. 45] 1. After granting the government's motion under U.S.S.G. § 5K1.1 [D.E. 42] and considering all relevant factors under 18U.S.C. § 3553(a), the court sentenced Jenkins to 168 months' imprisonment on each count to run concurrently. See [D.E. 44, 45]. Jenkins did not appeal his conviction or sentence.

         A motion to dismiss under Rule 12(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure for "failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted" tests a complaint's legal and factual sufficiency. See Ashcroft v. Iqbal. 556 U.S. 662, 677-78 (2009); Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly. 550 U.S. 544, 562-63, 570 (2007); Coleman v. Md. Court of Appeals. 626 F.3d 187, 190 (4th Cir. 2010), affd, 566 U.S. 30 (2012); Giarratano v. Johnson. 521 F.3d 298, 302 (4th Cir. 2008); accord Erickson v. Pardus. 551 U.S. 89, 93-94 (2007) (per curiam). In considering a motion to dismiss, a court need not accept a complaint's legal conclusions. See, e.g.. Iqbal. 556 U.S. at 678. Similarly, a court "need not accept as true unwarranted inferences, unreasonable conclusions, or arguments." Giarratano. 521 F.3d at 302 (quotation omitted); see Iqbal. 556 U.S. at 677-79. Moreover, a court may take judicial notice of public records without converting a motion to dismiss into a motion for summary judgment. See, e.g.. Fed.R.Evid. 201; Tellabs. Inc. v. Makor Issues & Rights. Ltd.. 551 U.S. 308, 322 (2007); Philips v. Pitt Cty. Mem'l Hosp.. 572 F.3d 176, 180 (4th Cir. 2009). In reviewing a section 2255 motion, the court is not limited to the motion itself. The court may consider "the files and records of the case." 28 U.S.C. § 2255(b); see United States v. McGill. 11 F.3d 223, 225 (1st Cir. 1993). Likewise, a court may rely on its own familiarity with the case. See. e.g.. Blackledge v. Allison. 431 U.S. 63, 74 n.4 (1977); United States v. Dyess. 730 F.3d 354, 359-60 (4th Cir. 2013).

         Section 2255(f) contains a one-year statute of limitations. Section 2255(f) provides that the one-year clock is triggered by one of four conditions, whichever occurs last:

(1) the date on which the judgment of conviction becomes final;
(2) the date on which the impediment to making a motion created by governmental action in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States is removed, if the movant was prevented from making a motion by such governmental action;
(3) the date on which the right asserted was initially recognized by the Supreme Court, if that right has been newly recognized by the Supreme Court and made retroactively applicable to cases on collateral review; or
(4) the date on which the facts supporting the claim or claims presented could have been discovered through the exercise of due diligence.

28 U.S.C. § 2255(f)(1)-(4): see Johnson v. United States. 544 U.S. 295, 299-300 (2005); Whiteside v. United States. 775 F.3d 180, 182-83 (4th Cir. 2014) (en banc). A criminal appeal must be filed within fourteen days after the court enters judgment of conviction. See Fed. R. App. P. 4(b)(1)(A)(i). If a defendant does not appeal his judgment, a conviction becomes final for purposes of section 2255's statute of limitations when the fourteen-day appeal period expires. See Clay v. United States. 537 U.S. 522, 532 (2003). But cf. United States v. Sanders. 247 F.3d 139, 142 (4th Cir. 2001) (holding that a conviction becomes final for purposes of section 2255's statute of limitations on the date judgment is entered if a defendant fails to file a direct appeal).

         On December 5, 2012, the court entered Jenkins's judgment of conviction [D.E. 44]. Therefore, under Clay, his judgment became final on December 19, 2012, and his period within which to file a section 2255 motion ended on December 19, 2013. See, e.g.. Clay, 537 U.S. at 532. Jenkins, however, did not file his section 2255 motion until December 28, 2015. See [D.E. 56]. Thus, Jenkins's section 2255 motion is untimely under section 2255(f). Furthermore, Jenkins has not plausibly alleged that any governmental action prevented him from filing a timely motion, that his motion is based on a right newly recognized by the Supreme Court, or that his motion is based on facts that could not have been discovered earlier through the exercise of due diligence. Accordingly, Jenkins's section 2255 motion is untimely under section 2255(f).

         Alternatively, Jenkins may not bring bis claim under section 2255. A petitioner generally may not use section 2255 to challenge the calculation of his advisory guideline range. See United States v. Foote. 784 F.3d 931, 936-40 (4th Cir. 2015); United States v. Pregent 190 F.3d 279, 283-84 (4th Cir. 1999); see also Whiteside. 775 F.3d at 183-87; United States v. Mikalajunas. 186 F.3d 490, 495-96 (4th Cir. 1999). Thus, the claim fails.

         Alternatively, Jenkins's plea agreement contains an appellate waiver. ...


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