Argued: September 12, 2017
from the United States District Court for the Southern
District of West Virginia, at Charleston. Thomas E. Johnston,
Chief District Judge. (2:15-cr-00171-1)
Coleman, OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL PUBLIC DEFENDER, Charleston,
West Virginia, for Appellant.
Timothy Doyle Boggess, OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES ATTORNEY,
Charleston, West Virginia, for Appellee.
Christian M. Capece, Federal Public Defender, Jonathan D.
Byrne, Research & Writing Specialist, OFFICE OF THE
FEDERAL PUBLIC DEFENDER, Charleston, West Virginia, for
A. Casto, United States Attorney, OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES
ATTORNEY, Charleston, West Virginia, for Appellee.
WILKINSON, MOTZ, and DIAZ, Circuit Judges.
WILKINSON, Circuit Judge:
West Virginia crime of aggravated robbery, W.Va. Code §
61-2-12 (1961), a predicate crime of violence under the force
clause of U.S.S.G. § 4B1.2? The district court held that
it was categorically violent, and we affirm its judgment.
Salmons Jr. pleaded guilty to being a felon in possession of
a firearm under 18 U.S.C. §§ 922(g)(1) and
924(a)(2). This crime carries a base offense level of 14,
see U.S.S.G. § 2K2.1(a)(6)(A), unless the
defendant has a prior conviction for a crime of violence, in
which case the base offense level rises to 20. See
U.S.S.G. § 2K2.1(a)(4)(A). The term "crime of
violence" is defined with reference to U.S.S.G. §
4B1.2(a). See U.S.S.G. § 2k2.1 cmt. n.1.
had previously been convicted of West Virginia aggravated
robbery. At the time of Salmons' conviction, aggravated
robbery was defined as the successful or attempted commission
of a "robbery by partial strangulation or suffocation,
or by striking or beating, or by other violence to the
person, or by the threat or presenting of firearms, or ...